ATIs make up no more than 4% of wheat proteins, but can trigger powerful immune reactions in the gut that can spread to other tissues in the body.
Celiac vs Gluten Intolerance
Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity was originally described in the 1980s and recently a “re-discovered” disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. R
What are ATIs?
Amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) can drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4. They are found in gluten, such as wheat, barley, or rye ,which triggers small intestinal inflammation. R
ATIs may be prime candidates of severe forms of non-celiac gluten (wheat) sensitivity. R
ATIs are not classified as gluten proteins, but ATIs are found in grain endosperm along with the gluten proteins and usually co-fractionate with the gliadin fraction. R
How Do They Relate to Gluten?
ATIs represent up to 4% of total wheat protein and are highly resistant to intestinal proteases. R
Specifically, gluten elicits and adaptive Th1-mediated immune response in people who have mutation in HLA-DQ2 ore HLA-DQ8.
ATIs engage the TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex, which will release proinflammatory cytokines in cells from celiac and nonceliac patients.
I don't have an allergy to gluten, but do react to ATIs. When I travel, this is what I use, since it breaks down amylase and gluten proteins.
- Gluten free diets may have more toxic minerals in them like mercury. R