The 27+ Benefits Of Matrine (with Natural Sources And Mechanisms)

Matrine: A Naturally Occuring Super Alkaliod

 
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790780/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790780/

 

Matrine is a very powerful alkaloid that has many neuropharmalogical benefits.

In this post, we will discuss matrine's benefits, natural sources for it, and some of matrine's 195+ mechanisms.

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Basics Of Matrine

 
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790780/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790780/

 

Matrine is one of several alkaloids in Ku-Shen that has not only been experimentally shown to cause a neurotoxic response, but has been shown to exert neuropharmacological activities: R

  • Antiepileptic Effects
  • Antinociceptive Effects
  • Hypothermic Actions
  • Memory Enhancement
  • Neuroprotective Effects
  • Sedative Effects
  • Sleep Improvement

In addition, matrine may serve other pleiotropic functions, such as immunological regulation, anti-inflammatory activity, cardiac effects and anti-tumor effect. R

Oxymatrine is matrine's bigger brother (has an oxygen molecule attached). 

Forms (derivatives) of Matrine: R R R R R

  • MASM (M19)
  • YF3-5
  • YF3-7
  • YF3-9
  • YF-18
  • WM130 (C30N4H40SO5F)
 
 

Benefits Of Matrine

1. Abolishes Pain

By acting on mu- (MOR) and kappa-opioid (KOR) receptors and endogenous endorphins (such as dynorphin A), matrine may be able to reduce pain. R R R

For example, in models of chronic constriction injury, matrine could reduce pain. R

Matrine derivatives (as opioid agonists) are currently be synthesized for trials to reduce pain. R R

Matrine can also ameliorate vincristine-induced painful neuropathy. R

Other studies matrine's analgesic effects to be mediated by cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission (muscarinic and D2). R

2. Reduces Allergies

 
 

By increasing TH2 cytokines and reducing IgE production, matrine may help with allergies. R

Matrine may also be useful for asthmaR

By downregulating Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression, matrine can stop allergy-induced airway inflammation. R

3. May Help With Withdrawal

Matrine may help with overcoming opioid (morphine) withdrawal. R

4. Destroys Cancer

In China, matrine is used as a clinical drug to treat cancer - matrine was approved by the China State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) for the treatment of cancer in 1992. R

By modulating the cell cycle (proliferation and apoptosis), matrine has may benefits combating cancer. R R R

Matrine can both induce both autophagy (cell recycling) and apoptosis (cell death). R R

Matrine has cancer fighting activity against:

  • Acute Myeloid and Lympoblastic Leukemias R R
  • Bladder Cancer (and can work synergistically with cisplatin) R R
  • Breast Cancer R R R
  • Cervical Cancer R R R
  • Cholangiocarcinoma R
  • Colon Cancer R R R R
  • Esophageal Cancer R
  • Gastric Cancer R R R R
  • Leukemia R
  • Liver Cancer R R R R R R
  • Lung Cancer R R R R
  • Medulloblastoma R R
  • Melanoma R R
  • Multiple Myeloma (works synergistically with arsenic trioxideR
  • Nasopharyngeal Cancer R R
  • Neuroblastoma R
  • Osteosarcoma R
  • Pancreatic Cancer R R
  • Prostate Cancer R R R R
  • Retinoblastoma R
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma R

Matrine may help with chemoresistance. R R

Matrine may also help with multi-drug resistance in cancer. R

In cancer patients, matrine was shown to enhance the immune functions and thus improve the quality of life. R

5. Combats Bone Loss

 
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5797611/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5797611/

 

Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis (PMOP) is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. R

By acting on Ribosomal Protein S5 (RPS5) and suppressing RANKL expression, matrine can suppress osteoclastogenesis and prevent PMOP-induced bone loss (in ovariectomized animal models). R R R

6. Helps Skin Inflammation

Matrine may be beneficial for inflammatory skin diseases (such as atopic dermatitis and eczema). R

By inhibiting expression of the Substance P (SP) on its receptor Neurokinin-1 (NK-1R), matrine can suppress proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1beta, IL-8 and MCP-1) in the skin. R

7. Produces Antioxidant Effects

Matrine can induce the activity of the transcription factor Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) which can upregulate many antioxidant and detoxification genes. R R

8. Protects The Liver

In the liver matrine can induce phase 1 detoxification enzymes (such as CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4) and reduce levels of reduced Lactate-Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) levels. R

Matrine can also help with liver regeneration (by inducing replication of liver stem cells). R

When matrine is combined with Licorice (Glycyrrhetinic Acid), it has protective effects against acetaminophen-induced death/overdose. R

By activating RPS5 and reducing Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) activity, matrine can help prevent liver fibrosis. R R

It also helps prevent liver firbrosis by reducing Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-b1), and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)  expression. R R

Matrine can protect the liver from chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and damage from Toxoplasma gondii infection. R R

Matrine can prevent Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) development from consuming a High Fructose Diet (HFD). R

9. Has Antimicrobial Effects

Matrine has antibiotic effects against:

  • E. Coli R

Matrine has antiparasitic effects against:

  • Angiostrongylus cantonensis R
  • Dipylidium caninum R
  • Fasciola hepatica R
  • Toxoplasma gondii R

Matrine has anti-viral effects against:

  • Coxsackie Virus B3 (CVB3) R
  • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) R R R R
  • Influenza Virus A/Hanfang/359/95 (H3N2) R
  • Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) R
  • Porcine Reproductive Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) R
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, useful for plants) R

Matrine has insecticidal/pesticidal effects against:

  • Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode) R
  • Coptotermes formosanus (termite) R

10. Protects The Lungs

Matrine can protect against acute lung injuryR

For example, by inhibiting COX-2 and ICAM-1, matrine can suppress LPS-induced lung injury. R 

11. May Combat Obesity

 
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25417736/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25417736/

 

Matrine may help obesity and food intakeR

For example, in obese rats, matrine can inhibit calorie intake and with weight lossR

Simultaneously, it can reduce the content of blood glucose, serum FFAs, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and MDA, increase total antioxidant capacity and improve blood lipid metabolism disorder. R

12. May Help Prevent Parkinson's

Matrine may be beneficial for preventing Parkinson's Disease (PD). R

For example, in PD animal models, matrine can protect against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuron damage by increasing Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), and NRF2. R

13. Protects The Brain During Stroke

Matrine may protect the brain from stroke-induced damage. R R

For example, in rats subjected to Hemorrhagic Stroke, matrine can protect brain cells from cell death and may improve Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) disruption by reducing inflammation (via PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB inhibition and Keap1/Nrf2-dependent HO-1 induction). R

Similarly in Ischemic Stroke, matrine exerts neuroprotective effects by its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. R

Matrine can improve survival rate of rats after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). R

14. Ameliorates Multiple Sclerosis

Matrine can ameliorate inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), decrease demylenation, in induce NRF2 in the brain. R R R R R

Matrine can also inhibit Nogo-A (a powerful way to induce neuronal regeneration) and increase Neurotrophin 3 (NT3) expression (a potent neurotrophic factor for promoting remyelination and recovery of neuronal function). R R

Matrine also promotes remylelination via the maturing of oligodendrocytes (via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling). R

Matrine can also help microglia cells turn from a M1 (inflammatory state) into M2 (anti-inflammatory state). R

Matrine also combats excitotoxicity in MS by downregulating glutamate and upregulating GABA levels, as well as enhancing expression of glutamate transporters (GLT-1 and GLAST). R

15. Protects Vascular Function

By activating HSP70, matrine can protect the heart from hypoxic injury. R

Matrine can protect against heart attack (via inhibition of RhoA/ROCK1). R

In clinics, matrine is currently used to treat cardiac arrhythmias, especially premature ventricular beats. R R R

Matrine can protect the vascular system from oxidative stress. R R

For example, matrine protects endothelial cells from Advanced Glycation Endproduct (AGE)-induced damage. R

By reducing ROS levels, TLR-4/MyD-88 expression, and TGF‑β/Smad expression, matrine can protect against fibrosis of the heart. R R 

Matrine may also help prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting the expression of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule‑1 (VCAM‑1) and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1). R

16. Ameliorates Arthritis

Marine can ameliorate Arthritis. R R

For example, in Osteoarthritis (OA), matrine can reduce Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade the extracellular matrix and facilitate chondrocyte apoptosis. R

In Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), matrine can improve inflammation by reducing the levels of Th1 cytokines (e.g. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β), but increasing Th2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4 and IL-10). R 

17. Fights Alzheimer's Disease

 
 

Matrine may help fight Alzheimer's Disease (AD). R R

It can inhibit the accumulation of Amyloid-Beta (AB) plaque in the brain. R

Matrine can improve cognitive impairment in mice with AB-induced AD (by lowering high Th17 cytokines and increasing Treg cytokines). R

Also in AD mice, matrine can increase spatial learning and memory retention. R

Matrine may also protect the hippocampus from AB-induced damage. R

18. Helps Treat Endotoxemia

Matrine may be useful for treatment of sepsis. R

In models of lethal sepsis, matrine can prolong survival, attenuate inflammation, and reduce organ injury. R

Matrine can also reduce endotoxemia in:

  • Dendritic cells (bone marrow) R
  • Gut Lining R
  • Lungs R R

19. Strengthens The Gut

In the gut, matrine can reduce inflammation (downregulates IL-1β, IL-17, TNF-α). R 

It also improves antioxidant levels in the gut (increases SOD, T-AOC). R

Matrine may also be useful for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) such as Ulcerative Colitis (UC). R R

For example, in IL-10 deficient mice, matrine can ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis. R

20. Combats Eye Inflammation

Matrine may be a safer ocular anti-inflammatory agent than corticosteroids. R

21. Helps With Diabetes Treatment

Matrine may be useful in the treatment of diabetes. R

Matrine can protect against damage from AGEs (oxidized metabolites from high blood sugar). R

Also matrine can ameliorate Hyperglycaemia and Insulin resistance from a high-fructose diet. R

Similarly to Metformin, matrine can reduce glucose intolerance and plasma insulin level, hepatic triglyceride content and fat accumulation in high-fat-fed mice without affecting caloric intake. R

Matrine can prevent fibrosis of the heart in those with diabetic cardiomyopathy (via inhibiting ATF6 signaling). R

22. Protects Against Proteopathy

Matrine can regulate stress in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and may help prevent Proteopathy and induce autophagy. R 

23. Improves Sleep

 
 

Matrine may useful as a hypnotic for sleep. R

It can also promote REM and NREM sleep by promoting Serotonin (5-HT) neurotranmission in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus (VLPO), a sleep promoting region. R

Matrine can also normalize hyperactivity from caffeineR

24. Quenches Neuroinflammation And Grows The Brain

Matrine can help with neuroinflammationR 

More specifically, matrine reduces the expression of Heat Shock Protein 60 (HSP60) release (binding to TLR4) from microglia after being subjected to LPS-induced inflammation. R

Matrine can also combat neuroinflammation by reducing expression of β-amyloid (Aβ) and B-site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE-1). R

It can improve brain growth by increasing expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), and Neurotrophin Receptor p75 (NTR). R R

25. Reduces Seizures

Matrine may be useful for epilepsyR

By increasing GABA activity and reducing Glutamate activity, matrine helps reduce seizures. R

26. May Combat EMF-Induced Side Effects

Matrine has benefits protecting against Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs). R

For example, mice subjected to a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) that had taken matrine had reduced signs of radiation sickness and improved survival rates from radiotherapy. R

27. Protects The Kidneys

Matrine can protects the kidneys from Adriamycin (ADR)-Induced Nephropathy (AIN). R

Matrine can also inhibit cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicityR

My Experience With Matrine

...currently trying multiple sophora extracts...

Natural Sources Of Matrine

 
 

Natural sources of matrine:

It can be used as a lotion as well. R

Other sources of matrine:

  • Aspergillus terreus (can be synthesized from fungus) R

Matrine Synergies

Studies have shown matrine may go well with:

Caveats

In normal doses, matrine has low toxicity.

Larger doses may induce more severe excitement in central nervous system (CNS) with muscle spasm and seizures, followed by signs of CNS (primarily respiratory) depression with a decreased respiratory rate, potentially progressing to apnea. R R

In mice, the acute toxicity test of matrine indicated that the tolerable dose of matrine was above 80 mg/kg, and the LD50 was 157.13 mg/kg (95%CI, 88.08-280.31 mg/kg). R

In rats, high doses of matrine can elevate taurine and Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMNO) levels and deplete hippurate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (such as 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, and succinate). R

Matrine combined with the fungus Lecanicillium muscarium can cause toxic effects (synergistically potentiate AChE and reduction in antioxidants). R

Uptake of matrine may be inhibited by cationic drugs including pyrilamine, quinidine, verapamil, amantadine, diphenhydramine, and cimetidine. R

By reducing CatSper, matrine may reduce production and quality of sperm (in rodents). R R

Mechanism Of Action

Simple: 

  • Increases ALB R
  • Increases Apaf-1 R
  • Increases Bak R
  • Increases Bax R R R R R R R
  • Increases BDNF R R
  • Increases Bim R
  • Increases Beclin-1 R R
  • Increases Bok R 
  • Increases cAMP R
  • Increases CAR R
  • Increases Caspase-3 R R R R R R
  • Increases Caspase-7 R R
  • Increases Caspase-8 R R
  • Increases Caspase-9 R R R
  • Increases CAT R
  • Increases CHOP R
  • Increases CYP2A6 R
  • Increases CYP2B6 R
  • Increases CYP3A4 R
  • Increases c-Fos R
  • Increases Dynorphin A (1-17) R
  • Increases E-cadherin R R R
  • Increases Fas R
  • Increases FasL R
  • Increases Fibronectin R
  • Increases FOXO1A R
  • Increases FOXO3A (reduces p-FoxO3a) R 
  • Increases FOXO4 R
  • Increases FOXO6 R
  • Increases Foxp3 R
  • Increases GABA R R
  • Increases GABAA R
  • Increases GADD45B R
  • Increases GAD65 R
  • Increases GLAST R
  • Increases GLT1 R
  • Increases GPX R
  • Increases GRP78 R
  • Increases GSH R R
  • Increases HES1 R
  • Increases HSP70 R
  • Increases HSP72 R
  • Increases HO-1 R R
  • Increases IGF-1 R
  • Increases IL-4 R R
  • Increases IL-5 R 
  • Increases IL-10 R R R
  • Increases IL-35 R
  • Increases Jagged 1 R 
  • Increases KOR R R
  • Increases Laminin R
  • Increases MAPK (increases in oxidative stress) R
  • Increases miR-133a R
  • Increases MOR R R
  • Increases NGF R 
  • Increases NQO1 R
  • Increases NRF2 R R R R
  • Increases NT3 R
  • Increases PARP R
  • Increases PKA R
  • Increases PTEN R R
  • Increases Puma R
  • Increases p16 R
  • Increases p21 R R R R
  • Increases p27 R R R
  • Increases p53 R R R
  • Increases ROS (increases in cancer cells solely) R 
  • Increases RPS5 R
  • Increases SOD R R R
  • Increases TGF-b1 R R
  • Increases TIMP-1 R
  • Increases TOPO-1 R
  • Increases Tregs R
  • Increases TRIB3 R
  • Increases TH R
  • Increases 5-HT R
  • Reduces R 
  • Reduces ABL R
  • Reduces AKT R R R R R R R R
  • Reduces α-SMA R
  • Reduces ASC R
  • Reduces AST R
  • Reduces ATF6 R
  • Reduces BACE-1 R
  • Reduces Bad R
  • Reduces Bcl-xL R
  • Reduces Bcl-2 R R R R R
  • Reduces BCR R
  • Reduces b-catenin R R
  • Reduces Caspase-1 R R
  • Reduces Cathepsin K R
  • Reduces CK R
  • Reduces Collagen I R R
  • Reduces Collagen III R R
  • Reduces COX-2 R R R R
  • Reduces CCR2 R
  • Reduces CTN-1 R
  • Reduces CTR R
  • Reduces CXCR3 R
  • Reduces Cyclin D1 R R R
  • Reduces c-Myc R
  • Reduces EGF R R
  • Reduces EGFR R R R R
  • Reduces eIF4E R
  • Reduces ERK1/2 R R
  • Reduces Glucose R
  • Reduces Glutamate R R
  • Reduces GRO R
  • Reduces GSK-3β R R R
  • Reduces HDAC1 R
  • Reduces HSF-1 R
  • Reduces HSP60 R
  • Reduces IAP R
  • Reduces ICAM-1 R R
  • Reduces IFN-γ R R R
  • Reduces IKBα R R
  • Reduces IKKα R
  • Reduces IKKβ R
  • Reduces IL-1a R
  • Reduces IL-1β R R R R R
  • Reduces IL-2 R
  • Reduces IL-4 R R
  • Reduces IL-5 R
  • Reduces IL-6 R R R R R R R R
  • Reduces IL-8 R R R
  • Reduces IL-10 (decreases in NK cells) R R
  • Reduces IL-12 R
  • Reduces IL-13 R
  • Reduces IL-17 R R R R R
  • Reduces IL-23 R R
  • Reduces IL-33 R
  • Reduces iNOS R R
  • Reduces JAK2 R R
  • Reduces LDH R R
  • Reduces MAPK (in cancer cells) R
  • Reduces MCP-1 R R
  • Reduces MDA R
  • Reduces MEK1 R
  • Reduces MLCK R
  • Reduces MMP (mitochondrial) R
  • Reduces MMP-1 R
  • Reduces MMP-2 R R R R R
  • Reduces MMP-3 R R R
  • Reduces MMP-9 R R R R R R R R R
  • Reduces MMP-13 R R
  • Reduces MRP1 R
  • Reduces mTOR R R R
  • Reduces MyD88 R
  • Reduces NF-kB R R R R
  • Reduces NK-1R R
  • Reduces NLRP3 R
  • Reduces NLRP10 R
  • Reduces Nogo-A R
  • Reduces NTR R
  • Reduces PAX2 R
  • Reduces PCNA R R
  • Reduces PDGF R
  • Reduces PI3K R R R R R R
  • Reduces PLA2 R
  • Reduces p20 R
  • Reduces p38 R R
  • Reduces P65 R R R R
  • Reduces P-gp R
  • Reduces Raf R
  • Reduces RAGE R
  • Reduces RANKL R
  • Reduces RhoA R
  • Reduces ROCK1 R
  • Reduces Rorγt R
  • Reduces ROS R R R
  • Reduces Shc R
  • Reduces SHP2 R
  • Reduces Skp2 R
  • Reduces Smad R
  • Reduces SOCS3 R
  • Reduces STAT3 R R
  • Reduces ST2 R
  • Reduces Survivin R
  • Reduces TGF-b1 (increases in heart) R R R R R
  • Reduces Th17 (cytokines in general) R
  • Reduces TLR3 R
  • Reduces TLR4 R R
  • Reduces TNFa R R R
  • Reduces TRAF6 R R
  • Reduces TRAP R
  • Reduces UKA R
  • Reduces VASP R
  • Reduces VCAM-1 R
  • Reduces VEGF R R R R R
  • Reduces VEGF-A R
  • Reduces VEGFR1 R
  • Reduces VEGFR2 R
  • Reduces Vimentin R R
  • Reduces Wnt R
  • Reduces XIAP R

Download more (proteomic) mechanisms of matrine here.

Advanced:

  • Matrine has a molecular formula of C15H24N2O. R
  • The AUC(0-t) values in the liver, blood microdialysates and plasma after intravenous administration were 395.91±74.48, 848.86±146.35 and 1304.07±305.92 min·mg/l, respectively. R
  • Following transdermal administration, the AUC(0-t) value in the liver, blood, plasma and skin microdialysates were 695.30±233.79, 1096.07±390.71, 2767.57±518.48 and 42735.77±27938.33 min·mg/l, respectively. R
  • Autophagy induced by matrine is regulated by p53 inactivation through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling transduction, then AMPK suppression switched autophagy to apoptosis. R
  • In cancer cells, matrine inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by causing cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 or S phase. R R R
  • In cancer stem cells, matrine upregulates CAR, E-cadherin, laminin and fibronectin. R
  • In liver cancer cells, WM130 (matrine derivative) could inhibit cell proliferation, invasion, migration and induced apoptosis in HCC cells by suppressing EGFR/ERK/MMP-2 and PTEN/AKT signaling pathways. R
  • Matrine induced apoptosis by collapsing the mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing cytochrome c release from mitochondria, reducing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, increasing activation of caspase-3, and decreasing the levels of p-Akt and p-ERK1/2...the apoptotic effects of matrine on AML cells were partially blocked by a caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK and a PI3K/Akt activator IGF-1, respectively. R
  • In gliomas, matrine has anti‑metastatic effect by decreasing the epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT). R
  • In NK cells, a significant decrease of supernatant concentrations of IL-1α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, GRO and TNF-α was observed after exposure to the matrine. R
  • In K562 cells, IL-6, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, GRO and TNF-α were decreased after matrine use. R
  • Matrine can reduce VEGF expression via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. R
  • Matrine inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation and migration by enhancing Tribbles 3 (TRB3) expression. R
  • Also in cancer cells, matrine causes ROS generation and mitochondrial swelling - Matrine can trigger mitochondrial apoptotic cell death largely through inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. R R
  • Matrine (dose-dependently) significantly increased 5-HT level in the cortex region of the brain...matrine groups showed tendency to increase c-Fos expression in the VLPO. R
  • MASM inhibited LPS-induced expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in a concentration-dependent manner. MASM also attenuated LPS-induced IL-12p70, TNF-α, IL-6 and NO release of DCs. MASM inhibited LPS-induced PI3K/Akt, MAPK and NF-κB pathways. R
  • Matrine inhibits the activation of microglia by suppressing the HSP60/TLR-4/MyD88 signaling pathway, and that this inhibited has a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effect. R
  • In liver fibrosis, the expression of α-SMA, Collagen I, Collagen III, and TGF-β1 could be downregulated, and the protein phosphorylation levels of EGFR, AKT, ERK, Smad, and Raf (p-EGFR, p-AKT, p-ERK, p-Smad, and p-Raf) were also decreased by WM130 as well as decrease the extracellular matrix (ECM) formation. R
  • In arrhythmia models, Matrine could inhibit K+ channels (IKM3) and prolong APD. R
  • Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. R
  • The cardioprotective effect of matrine on ISO-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with its ability of increasing levels of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), TGF-β1, suppressing cardiac troponin (cTn-I) release and inflammatory mediators RhoA/ ROCK1. R
  • Matrine (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) significantly reversed the alternations of Th17/Treg cytokines induced by Aβ 1-42 injection, decreased RORγt mRNA expression, increased Foxp3 mRNA expression and improved the learning and memory ability in the AD rats. R
  • In MS, MAT-treated rats showed a significant decrease in clinical scores, in CNS infiltration of inflammatory cells (including CD4(+), CD8(+) T cells and macrophages) and demyelination...serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 showed a marked reduction after MAT treatment. R
  • Also in MS, MAT treatment reduced the numbers of iNOS+ M1, but increased Arg1+ M2 microglia/macrophage phenotypes, NT3 expression was upregulated in both phenotypes. R
  • MAT improves clinical severity of EAE in part by reducing OLG apoptosis via restoring the ratios of proNGF:NGF and the respective receptors p75(NTR):TrkA in vivo (prevents decrease in NGF and TrkA). R
  • MAT treatment significantly reduced the levels of NogoA, its receptor complex NgR/p75NTR/LINGO-1, and their downstream RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in the CNS. In contrast, intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and its protein kinase (protein kinase A (PKA)), which can promote axonal regrowth by inactivating the RhoA, were upregulated. Importantly, adding MAT in primary astrocytes in vitro largely induced cAMP/PKA expression, and blockade of cAMP significantly diminished MAT-induced expression of PKA and production of BDNF, a potent neurotrophic factor for neuroregeneration. R
  • In the Jejunum, matrine decreases Il-10, but in the Ileum, it increases it. R
  • The effects of (+)-matrine are mediated mainly through activation of κ opioid receptors (KOR) and partially through μ receptors (MOR), while the effects of (+)-allomatrine are mediated only through activation of KOR. R

More Research

  • Matrine has been used in commercially available pesticides. R