How To Increase Tyrosine Aminotransferase (TAT)

TAT In The Brain, Liver, Heart, and Cancer

 
tat liver
 

Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) also known as tyrosine transaminase, plays a role in the degradation of tyrosine in the body and may contribute to liver disease and mental retardation.

In this post, we will discuss TAT's role in disease and ways to increase or decrease this enzyme. 

Contents:

  1. Basics
  2. TAT Activity And Disease
  3. What Increases TAT?
  4. What Decreases TAT?
  5. Mechanism Of Action

Basics

During the synthesis of catecholamines, tyrosine is either converted into dopamine and norepinephrine by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or degraded by tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). R

This converts tyrosine into 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (4-HPPA). R

Inhibition of TAT causes higher levels of tyrosine in the blood and brain. R

TAT is present in the liver, heart, brain, and kidneys. R R R

TAT Activity And Disease

1. TAT In The Liver

Low levels of TAT activity in the liver can cause a build of tyrosine in the blood, leading to tyrosinemia. R

Levels of TAT in the liver may also play a role in liver cancer. R

2. TAT In The Blood And Brain

 
tat blood
 

TAT activity can cause Tyrosinemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome, RHS) can cause mental retardation, and elevated blood tyrosine levels. R

Fish Oil can prevent increased DNA damage in the striatum and hippocampus from Tyrsoinemia type II. R

N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) and deferoxamine (DFX) can decrease the neurodegenerative effects of L-tyrosine on mitochondria in the brain in those with Tyrsoinemia type II. R R

In Tyrosinemia type II, tyrosine crystals can deposit in the cornea and results in corneal inflammation. R

3. TAT In The Heart

In the heart, TAT suppresses TH levels and decreases NE levels in the heart. R

Inhibiting high levels of TAT may help with the heart's ability to contract. R

4. TAT In The Reproductive System

Estrogen can affect the way TAT activity expresses in the ovaries, contributing to ovarian cancer. R

What Increases TAT?

 
 

Increase TAT:

  • Adenosine A2A R
  • Alcohol R R
  • cAMP R
  • Cortisol R
  • Dextran R
  • GCR R
  • miR-133a R
  • o-Aminoazotoluene R R R
  • P5P R

What Decreases TAT?

Decrease TAT:

  • Actinomycin R
  • Beta-diaminopropionic acid R
  • Mifepristone R
  • TH R

Mechanism Of Action

Simple:

Advanced:

  • L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate R
  • Tyrosine aminotransferase has a bell-shaped pH-activity curve with a maximum near pH 7.5. R