The 13+ Benefits Of Chokeberries (Aronia)

The Fruit With The Highest Polyphenol Count

Chokeberries (Aronia) are powerful anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories and are very high in polyphenols. R R R

 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1541-4337.12221/full

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1541-4337.12221/full

 

Basics

 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1541-4337.12221/full

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1541-4337.12221/full

 

Chokeberries have more polyphenols (such as flavanoids) than other remarkable berries, such as blueberries (4x more), raspberries (3-8x more), currant (0.6x more) strawberries (10x more) and blackberries (2-4x more). R R

Black Chokeberry (Aronia Melanocarpa) is high in the flavonoid of anthocyandins (the component that gives the fruit a very dark color) which may prevent many age-related diseases and chronic illnesses. R R

Purple Chokeberry (Aronia prunifolia) and Red Chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia) are richer in in flavonoids of phenolic acid and proanthocyanins. R

 
 

Benefits

1. May Increase Longevity

Chokeberry may increase Klotho (a powerful aging-suppressing protein). R

DNA damage causes increased aging as well as senescent cells (non-cancerous cells that refuse to die or replicate). R

Chokeberry can decrease the chance of this DNA damage. R

2. May Prevent Cancer

By protecting DNA from damage, chokeberry has been successfully used to prevent and/or fight cancers: R R

  • Brain Cancer R
  • Breast Cancer R R R R
  • Cervix Cancer R R
  • Colon Cancer R
  • Leukemia R
  • Liver Cancer R
  • Melanoma R
  • Pancreatic Cancer R 

Chokeberry can stop cancerous cells from replicating (by downregulating p53) and increase the immune systems defense to fight cancerous cells. R R R

3. Protects The Brain

Unrepaired DNA damage can lead to a loss of brain function. R

Chokeberry can prevent this. R

As previously discussed above, chokeberry may increase the protein klothoR

Klotho is powerful in increasing cognitive functionR

Chokeberry can also protect the brain against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. R

Low doses of chokeberry can protect the brain against the toxic effects of the herbicidal toxin, paraquat, and may prevent toxin-induced Parkinson's Disease (PD). R

Chokeberry may also improve memory and cognitive function in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Dementia. R R R

One way it does this is by its ability to increase the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. R

In aged mice, chokeberry can help maintain spacial memory. R

This effect is even greater when combined with EGCG (or green tea). R

4. Improves Exercise Performance

Chokeberry can improve mitochondrial function. R

For example, in triathletes, a Chokeberry/Cirtus Juice blend can decrease biomarkers of mitochondrial stress. R R R

It also improves exercise tolerance, by reducing fatigue in atheletes. R R R

5. Has Anti-Depressant And Anti-Anxiety Effects

 
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In a study with aged mice, chokeberry significantly increases the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotoninR

In another study, rats that were given unlimited availability to drink chokeberry juice for 2 months had decreased symptoms of anxiety and depression. R

Chokeberry may also help with social anxietyR

For example, in animal studies, chokeberry had comparable anxiolytic effects as diazepam (Valium), a common anti-anxiety medication. R

6. Helps The Liver

Chokeberry can protect the liver. R R R R R

For example, in animal models of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), chokeberry can significantly reduce fat accumulation in the liver. R 

Chokeberry also prevents oxidation of lipids in the liver and blood. R R

Chokeberry increases antioxidants (such as glutathione) and can also activate the major antioxidant promoting pathway NRF2. R R

Chokeberry may improve cholesterol metabolism in those with an APOE mutation. R

7. Protects The Gut

Chokeberry may also improve symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis (UC). R

It can also help with ulcers in the gut and improve gastric mucous secretion. R

For example, in studies where animals had ulcers, chokeberry helped protect the stomach lining and improved the condition of the ulcer. R

8. Helps With Diabetes

Chokeberry may help with metabolic syndromes as it can help with inflammation of the pancreas, restore beta-cells ability to secrete insulin, and prevent insulin resistance. R R R R

For example, in diabetic animal models, chokeberry can normalize the metabolism of carbohydrates, thus preventing insulin resistance. R

In a study with healthy women, chokeberry was able to reduce improper insulin responses to eating wheat and rye. R

It can also help with proper insulin secretion by inhibiting DPP IV. R R

Chokeberry can protect the body against the damaging effect of high glucose levels and may also help reduce glucose levels. R R

It can reduce HbA1C levels in diabetic patientes. R

It may also prevent weight gain in diabetic patients. R

9. Helps With Weight Loss

 
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Chokeberry may help with weight loss.

For example, obese rats that were fed chokeberry were able to keep stable blood sugar and lose visceral fat. R

Chokeberry can increase levels of adiponectin and PPAR-gamma, thus promoting fat burning. R

Chokeberry can also inhibit α-glucosidase and α-amylase, which can inhibit the absorption of sugars. R R

Obese patients that were given chokeberry juice with glucomannan had a better omega 3:6 ratio and lower blood pressure. R 

10. Has Anti-Microbial And Anti-Viral Effects

Chokeberry has anti-viral effects against influenza. R

It has anti-microbial action against:

  • Bacillus cereus R
  • Escherichia coli R
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa R
  • Staphylococcus aureus R

Chokeberry can also inhibit biofilms. R

Chokeberry Juice may be a useful replacement for antibiotic treatment for Urinary Tract Infections (UTI). R

Chokeberry Juice may inhibit inflammation in pneumonia. R

11. Supports A Healthy Vascular System

Chokeberry protects the blood and vascular system. R R R

It may prevent heart disease. R R R

It can reduce C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels. R

It can also reduce high homocysteine levels. R

Chokeberry can also protect the heart against some antibiotics, such as doxorubicin. R

Chokeberry is very effective at reducing high blood pressureR R R R

It also can increase nitric oxide levels. R R

Chokeberry can reduce LDL and triglycyride levels and improve HDL cholesterol in the blood. R R R

It may also protect against the detrimental effects of oxidized LDL. R R

Chokeberry may also help with natural blood clot formation. R R

By mediating blood flow and norepinephrine levels, chokeberry may help balance body temperature levels in those sensitive to cold temperatures. R 

12. Protects The Skin

 
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Chokeberry may reduce inflammation in eczema. R

13. Protects Against Toxins

Chokeberry may also protect against:

  • Alcohol R
  • Cadmium (liver, kidneys, gut, heart, brain and bones) R R R
  • CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) R
  • Certain Drugs (anti-arrhythmia drugs, antibiotics, antipsychotics chemotherapy drugs, NSAIDsR R
  • Lead R
  • Methamphetamine R
  • Nitrites and Nitrates R
  • Paraquat R
  • Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons R
  • Sulfur Mustard R
  • Tobacco Smoke R

My Experience And Where To Get Chokeberry

Eating the berries are very sour and so is the unsweetened juice, so I usually like to supplement it instead.

If I supplement this before exercise, I am able to work out for longer with less overall fatigue.

Forms Of Chokeberry

 
 

Aronia Chokeberry Supplement - I use this daily in the morning.

Chokeberry Powder - I will put this in smoothie.

Chokeberry Juice - I will drink this while working out (juice may be added to wine or alcohol when at social gatherings, but I don't drink).

It can also be used as an essential oil, but I have not tried that yet.

Chokeberry Goes Well With:

If you grow your own plants, EMFs (such as UVC and microwaves) can increase the anthocyanin content of chokeberries. R

Caveats

Chokeberries and chokeberry juice are safe in humans. R R

Metals in chokeberries are significantly lower than WHO's RDA should not be a concern and eating the berries may actually be a good source of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn. R

Cokeberry does not interfere in iron absorption. R

Eating the berries may cause a reaction if you are sensitive to lectins. R

Chokeberry may interfere with drugs that are metabolized via Cytochrome 450. R

It may also reduce lactobacillus, enterobacteriaceae and enterococcus strains in the gut. R R

Mechanism Of Action

Simple:

  • Increases ACh R
  • Increases Adiponectin R
  • Increases BDNF R
  • Increases CDC2/25 R
  • Increases CREB R
  • Increases DA R
  • Increases Glut1/4 R
  • Increases GSH R R
  • Increases Gys1 R
  • Increases Klotho R
  • Increases HDL R
  • Increases HO-1 R
  • Increases HSP-70 R
  • Increases IL-4 R
  • Increases Irs1/2 R
  • Increases MCP-1 R
  • Increases NE R R
  • Increases NO R R
  • Increase NRF2 R
  • Increases PCI R
  • Increases Pi3k R
  • Increases PPAR-gamma (in fat) R
  • Increase SOD R R
  • Increases 5-HT R
  • Reduces α-amylase R
  • Reduces α-glucosidase R R
  • Reduces AChE R
  • Reduces ACE R R
  • Reduces ALT R
  • Reduces aP2 R
  • Reduces AST R
  • Reduces ATM R
  • Reduces ATR R
  • Reduces Chk1/2  R
  • Reduces CRP R
  • Reduces COX-2 R
  • Reduces DPP IV R
  • Reduces Glucose R
  • Reduces Gsk3-beta R
  • Reduces HbA1C R
  • Reduces Homocysteine R
  • Reduces H2AX R
  • Reduces IL-1b R
  • Reduces IL-6 R
  • Reduces IL-8 R R
  • Reduces IL-10 R
  • Reduces Leptin R
  • Reduces LDL/C R R
  • Reduces LPL R
  • Reduces MAO-A/B (possibly) R
  • Reduces MDA R R
  • Reduces MMP-2 R
  • Reduces MMP-14 R
  • Reduces MMP-16 R
  • Reduces MMP-17 R
  • Reduces MPO R
  • Reduces Prostaglandin E2 R
  • Reduces P450 R
  • Reduces PPARγ2 (in liver) R
  • Reduces p53 R
  • Reduces TGF-b1 R

Advanced:

  • The bioactive components of Aronia are well absorbed, can cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and have systemic beneficial effects. R R R
  • Anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-arabinoside, cyanidin 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-xyloside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside) produce many of the benefits of chokeberry such as increasing klotho, increasing neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine (dose-dependent manner), and 5-hydroxytryptamine, inflammatory cytokines (COX2, TGF-β1, and IL-1) transcription and preventing DNA damage. R
  • Black Chokeberry (Aronia) contains isoquercetin, kaempferol, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin and hydroxybenzoic acids as well. R
  • In the brain Aronia increases BDNF, CREB and acetylcholine levels (via acetylcholinesterase inhibition) and contributes to long-term potentiation. R
  • Anthocyanins significantly raise GSH-PX and T-SOD. R
  • Anthocyanins from BC dose-dependently decrease H2AX and γ-H2AX (mediators of the DNA damage signaling pathway) and Chk1,p- Chk1, Chk2, p-Chk2 (Checkpoint kinase 1 and checkpoint kinase 2  which are effectors of DNA damage signaling pathway) by increasing anti-inflammatory IL-4yr cytok, HSP-70, NO, and PGE2 expressions. R
  • In the skin, chokeberry inhibits NF-KB/MAPK activation of TNF-alpha stimulation of ICAM-I pro-inflammatory cytokines. R

More Research

  • Aronia mitschurinii, that apparently originated in cultivation, is also known as Sorbaronia mitschurinii. R