The Bredesen Protocol
This protocol has been tested in over 250 subjects to effectively reverse cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia.
Most recently, (October 2018), Dr. Bredesen has brought forth 100 more case studies with improvement from the protocol. R
The Bredesen Protocol was developed by Dr. Dale Bredesen and his team at MPI Cognition.
This protocol used to be called the MEND protocol, but now is called ReCODE. R
The overall goal of this protocol is to fix the following (which in turn reverses cognitive decline and helps with Alzheimer's and Dementia):
Hormone, nutrient, and trophic factor optimization
Toxins (chemical, biological, and physical)
Restoration and protection of lost (or dysfunctional) synapses
Protocols like this may never reach global recognition or even FDA consideration for further evaluation.
The problems with most FDA-based studies is that they only look at one aspect of the disease - X causes Y.
Unfortunately, AD is complex and there are many root causes to it.
The ReCODE protocol looks at 45 factors (metabolic markers) that have to be simultaneously optimized (more discussed below).
Amyloid Precursor Protein
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is naturally occurring in the brain and depending on how it is cut (either by netrin-1 or other molecules) it can either turn into:
Something healthy for the brain (such as sAPPα and αCTF)
Something toxic such as amyloid-beta (as well as Jcasp and C31). R
If APP is cut to produce amyloid-beta, then amyloid-beta can continue to cut APP into more amyloid-beta plaques.
This creates a positive feedback loop, thus creating more and more amyloid-beta plaques in the brain, instead of creating healthy molecules for the brain.
This positive feedback loop creates a clastic (destructive) effect on the synapses, instead of a blastic (protective) response.
The dogma behind amyloid plaque (the sticky plaque that builds up in the brain of Alzheimer's patients) as the main evil in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is actually incorrect.
In fact, it may be protective: R
Acts as an anti-microbial
Binds to toxins (like heavy metals)
Protects against inflammation
If you have been shot, would you just patch up the wound and not remove the bullet?
No, you would treat the underlying problems (remove the bullet) and replace the blood loss.
The Bredesen Protocol first targets the underlying problem.
There are 3 types of Alzheimer's disease described in the ReCODE protocol.
You can develop one of these or a combination:
Anything that causes inflammation to the brain (low chronic inflammation can do this as well) can contribute to Alzheimer's Disease (AD):
Diet High in Lectins R
Imbalances in fatty acids (omegas)
Leaky Gut or Leaky Blood Brain Barrier
Toxins (incl metals)
Glycotoxicity comes form an imbalance of glucose/insulin usage in the brain.
The pancreas produces Insulin-Degrading Enzyme (IDE, the enzyme that breaks down insulin) to break down amyloid beta.
If IDE is used up by a diet too high in sugar (like someone with insulin resistance), then there is none left to break down amyloid beta.
This type of AD is called 1.5 because it is a combination of AD 1, inflammation and AD 2, trophic loss.
For example, having high amounts of glucose in the blood creates inflammation, and having improper usage of insulin, degrades insulin's ability to act as a neurotrophic (brain growth) promoter.
Intranasal insulin may help with this type.
2. Metabolic/Trophins Loss
This type of AD is usually caused by imbalances in the endocrine system (hormones) and nutrient depletion, as well as neurotrophic loss (brain breaking down faster than it can regrow).
Hormone Imbalances (Vitamin D, Sex and Neuro Steroids, Thyroid)
Neurotrophic Loss (atrophy in brain)
The toxin/infectious type of AD is more environmental and can be caused by:
ApoE3 (more common)
Heavy Metals (including amalgams)
Low Zinc/high copper ratio R
Psychiatric disorders (correlation)
This usually occurs after 80 y/o.
All the labs and tests for the Bredesen Protocol can be ordered here (does not include MRI/PET scan).
Albumin/Globulin Ratio (A:G Ratio)
< 2830 ng/ml
Copper:Zinc Ratio (also look at ceruloplasmin ≤ 30)
350-430 (women) mcg/dL
400-500 (men) mcg/dL
0.5-13.8 ng/mL (male)
1.1-27.5 ng/mL (female)
Omega 6:3 Ratio
RBC Thiamine Pyrophosphate
3.2-4.2 pg/ml (free)
1.3-1.8 ng/dL (free)
500-1000 ng/dL (total)
6.5-15 ng/dL (free)
< 2380 pg/ml
Vitamin B12 (MMA test can complement, but isn't a replacement)
Vitamin E (as Alpha-Tocopherol)
It's also a good idea to test for leaky gut, leaky brain, and food sensitivities:
Cyrex Array 2 - leaky gut
Cyrex Array 3/4 - food sensitivities and gluten intolerance
Cyrex Array 5 - autoantibodies
Cyrex Array 20 - leaky blood brain barrier
Infections can travel to the brain (via a leaky brain) through the nose, vagus nerve, or eye such as:
This can also cause meningitis.
A urine culture should be free of mycotoxins.
Imaging can be done with:
PET (FDG-PET, Amyloid PET, or Tau PET)
MRI with volumetrics (Neuroreader or NeuroQuant).
Body mass index (BMI) should be 18–25; waistline < 35 inches (women) or < 40 inches (men).
Here are some cognitive tests:
MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination)
MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) - A normal MoCA score is 26 to 30
SAGE (Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination)
ApoE4 (epsilon 4) is the most common genetic variable for predicting Alzheimer's.
What does ApoE4 do?
Reduces the clearance of amyloid-beta plaques
Regulates over 1,700 different genes (1/20 of human genome)
Shuts down the gene that makes SirT1, which helps with gene regulation (resveratrol would help this)
Activates NF-κB, thus promoting inflammation.
It's also a good idea to check any mutations or polymorphisms in APP, PS1, PS2, CD33, TREM2, CR1, and NLRP1.
Treatment is different for everyone, but simply goes like this:
Fixing the underlying cause (infections, toxin exposure, chronic inflammation)
Changing lifestyle to increase neurotrophic factors and proper autophagy
Using diet and treatments to restore biomes and insulin sensitivity in the brain/body
Optimizing hormones and other biomarkers using bioidentical hormones, supplements, and herbs
Treat MARCoNs if positive.
Inactivate/excrete pathogens using:
Here are some other useful tools to help remove infections or toxins:
These are lifestyle requirements for the ReCODE protocol that help reverse AD:
Do brain training games
Keep stress low (for reduced atrophy)
Lots of uncooked veggies
Fasting 12 hours/day
Stop eating 3 hours before bed
Increase insulin sensitivity
Cruciferous vegetables (such as cauliflower, broccoli/broccoli sprouts, various types of cabbage, kale, radishes, Brussels sprouts, turnips, watercress, kohlrabi, rutabaga, arugula, horseradish, maca, rapini, daikon, wasabi, and bok choy)
Leafy greens (such as kale spinach, and lettuce)
Pasture raised eggs
Resistant starches (such as sweet potatoes, rutabagas, parsnips, and green bananas)
Wild-caught fish (SMASH fish such as salmon, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, and herring)
Eat less frequently:
Coffee (such as super coffee)
Legumes (such as peas and beans)
Nightshades (such as eggplant, peppers, and tomatoes)
Nontropical fruits (low glycemic, such as berries)
Pasture raised chicken
Starchy veggies (such as corn, peas, squash, but sweet potatoes are an exception)
Wine (1 glass/wk)
Dairy (occasional cheese or plain yogurt is okay, I recommend A2-based dairy)
Fruits (high glycemic ones especially)
High mercury fish (such as tuna, shark, and swordfish)
Sugar and simple carbs (including breads, wheats, rice, cookies, cakes, candies, sodas, etc)
Some important notes about the diet:
Avoid overheating foods (as it creates AGEs)
Fish is good, but don't do too much meat.
Remove all inflammatory lectins. R
If you do eat fruits, make sure they are higher in fiber and not as juice.
Include probiotics and prebiotics:
B. lactis (fermented dairy)
B. longum (fermented veggies and dairy)
L. acidophillus (fermented dairy)
L. brevis (sauerkraut and pickles)
L. plantarum (kimchi, sauerkraut and fermented veggies)
For the nasal microbiome:
Here are some supplements recommended for decreasing insulin resistance:
Supplements on the ReCODE program that help with cognition and inflammation:
Herbs on the ReCODE program that help with cognition and inflammation: R
Triphala (Amalaki + Haritaki + Bibhitaki)
Here are all the functions that the ReCODE protocol aims to accomplish:
Improve axoplasmic transport
Increase insulin sensitivity
Increase microglial clearance of Aβ
Increase phagocytosis index
Increase synaptoblastic signaling
Increase telomere length
Increase vitamin D signaling
Optimize all metals
Optimize cholinergic neurotransmission
Optimize E2:P (estradiol to progesterone) ratio
Optimize free T3
Optimize free T4
Optimize insulin secretion and signaling
Optimize mitochondrial function and biogenesis
Optimize stem-cell-mediated brain repair
Optimize synaptic components
Reduce amyloid-beta oligomerization
Reduce caspase-6 cleavage
Reduce caspase-3 cleavage
Reduce glial scarring
Reduce mTOR activation R
Reduce oxidative damage and optimize ROS
Reduce synaptoclastic signaling